Tuesday, 23 May 2017

Losing Factors of Team Vietnam In SEAGAMES 2015

Shapie, M.N.M. (1,2) & Mohd Hanizul, N.H (1,3)

1. Fakulti Sains Sukan dan Rekreasi, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor.
2. Pertubuhan Seni Gayung Fatani Malaysia
3. Taekwondo Malaysia (WTF) 


Abstract

The purpose of this analysis was to determine the losing factors of team Vietnam in 28th SEA Games 2015 held in Singapore. The four selected losing matches from team Vietnam that were used for analysis were men class B semi-finals, men class C final, men class E final and men class F final. There is a total of 14 indicators used to analyse the matches, but only 4 indicators were used for the discussion.

Keywords: Silat, Kicking, Martial Arts, Performance Analysis

Introduction

Dated back to over a 1000 years ago, silat has a very mixed history as it was formed from headhunting skills by natives from Indian, Chinese and Japanese martial arts. Silat bounds the martial arts of the Malaysian Archipelago, Indonesia and surrounding Southeast Asian areas and has various names depending on the region it is practised in. There are hundreds of different styles and schools but they tend to focus either on strikes, joint manipulation, throws, weaponry, or some combination. There are separate national organisations in each of the main countries the sport is practised in. These are Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia (IPSI) from Indonesia, Persekutuan Silat Kebangsaan Malaysia (PESAKA) from Malaysia, Persekutuan Silat Brunei Darussalam (PERSIB) from Brunei and Persekutuan Silat Singapura (PERSISI) from Singapore. Practitioners are called pesilat. The common name within Indonesia and Malaysia is Pencak Silat. It comprises of two terms used in different regions. The word “pencak” and its dialetic derivatives such as “penca” (West Java) and “mancak” (Madura and Bali) is commonly used in Java, Madura and Bali whereas the term “silat” os “silek” is used in Sumatra. Pencak silat was included in the 14th SEA Games 1987 held in Jakarta, Indonesia when IPSI presented it. The rules of silat olahraga have been arranged in the year 1973. For the Tanding (match) cateogory, the arena will have a 10 by 10 metres mattress set up with a round match ground measuring 8 metres wide in diameter. The middle of the match ground is marked with a circle measuring three metres in diameter, which separates the opponents at the beginning of a competition. The two opposing sides are corners at the points of the square arena which are labelled in blue and red at diagonal ends, while the other two corners, marked yellow, are neutral areas. Tunggal (single), Ganda (double), and Regu (team) categories simply use the entire 10 by 10 metre performance arena. 

Materials and Methods

A publicly available video of four male silat matches from the 28th SEA Games 2015 competition in Singapore were taken from Youtube and used for this analysis. The videos taken were of male matches from class B (-55kg), class C (-60kg), class E (-70kg), and class F (-75kg). There were 14 different types of indicators used to analyse the matches. The frequency, mean and standard deviation of the performance were calculated subsequently. The methods used for the analysis were video analysis and hand notational.

Motion categories

              Silat exponent’s motion were divided into 14 different types of categories and were defined as follows:

Punch:
The punch ‘tumbuk’ attack is done by a hand with a closed fist hitting the target. In silat punching is often used to fight the opponent. It can be a straight punch ‘tumbuk lurus’ or uppercut ‘sauk’ to the exponent body’s.

Kick:
The kick ‘tendang / terajang’ is an attacking movement which is performed with one leg or two legs simultaneously. A kick can be aimed at any target. It can be front kick ‘tendang depan’, side-kick ‘depak’ or semi-circular side kick ‘tendang lengkar’.

Block:
The blocking movements begin with the posture position ‘sikap pasang’: the exponent stands straight with his hands around his body or close to his chest. Blocking or parrying ‘tangkisan’ can be done using arms, elbows and legs with the purpose to block off or striking back at any attack.

Catch:
The catch ‘tangkapan’ is done by using the hand to ob - struct the opponent from carrying out an attack. The silat ex - ponent is able to prevent himself from being attacked by pointing the attack which he has caught to another direction. A catch which twists or drags the opponent is forbidden. Also, a catch which could break the part which is being held such as the leg and waist is also forbidden. These regulations exist to protect the silat exponent’s.

Topple:
There are various ways of toppling down one’s opponent. For example, a silat exponent ‘pesilat’ can either push, shove the opponent’s back leg from the bag or from the side, shove, hit, kick, strike or punch to make the opponent lose his balance. Every fall is considered valid as long as the silat exponent topples his opponent down without wrestling or he is able to overpower the opponent whom he has brought down.

Sweep:
Swiping ‘sapuan’ involves attacking an opponent’s leg which are on the ground to unstabilise him and bring down to the ground. A silat exponent can perform this attacking movement either with his right or left leg, Hence, front sweep ‘sapu - an depan’ is done by swinging the leg to the front to push an opponent’s front leg, while back sweep ‘sapuan belakang’ is carried out by swinging the leg backward to hit the back leg.

Evade/Dodge:
The evade ‘elakan’ technique is carried out by silat exponent when he tries to evade an attack. This technique does not require the silat exponent to touch the opponent in fending off the attack. They are many ways of carrying out his de - fensive movement such as dodging ‘gelek’, retreat ‘mundur’, evasion to the side ‘elak sisi’, bending ‘elak serung’, jumping ‘lonjak’, ducking ‘susup’ and etc.

Self-Release:
Self-release ‘lepas tangkapan’ technique is a technique to unlock any clinch or catch from an opponent.

Block and Punch:
The blocking technique used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by a counter attack using the hand to punch the opponent.

Block and Kick:
The blocking technique used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent followed by a counter attack using the leg to kick the opponent.

Block and Sweep:
The blocking technique used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent followed by a counter attack using the sweeping technique towards the opponent.    
                                            
Fake Punch:
An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake punch to break their opponent’s defensive posture.

Fake Kick:
An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake kick to break their opponent’s defensive posture.

Others:
Both silat exponents are either in the ready position ‘sikap pasang’ or coming close to each other using the silat step pattern ‘pola langkah’.

All the categories are considered high intensity except for others due to the low intensity periods of both silat exponents.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS        

The observation generated data will be frequency counted, a method of recording in observational research in which the researcher records each occurrence clearly defined behaviour within a certain time frame [12]. All the raw data collected from all matches used the system produced by Shapie et. al (2013). Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Scientists, version 20.0. A descriptive analysis was used to determine the difference of performance between the winners and losers in the silat matches.




Results

The tables below show the actions performed during competitions and their outcomes in the match, the frequency profile of actions for all 4 matches of all 8 contestants which consist of class B, class C, class E and class F, and mean and standard deviation for all matches.

Table 1 Frequency of actions and outcomes recorded during match Vietnam class B
Action
Outcome
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available*
Total
Block

13


13
Block and Kick





Blok and Punch
1
1


2
Block and Sweep
1



1
Kick
7
6
2

15
Fake Kick



5
5
Punch
10
6
2
1
19
Fake Punch



1
1
Self-Release
1



1
Topple
4
2


6
Sweep
3



3
Catch
3
1

1
5
Dodge

2


2
Others



32
32
Total
30
31
4
40
105

Table 2 Frequency profile of the 2 contestants in class B
Exponent
Block
Punch
Kick
Topple
Others
Total
Win
8
9
8
5
24
54
Lose
7
12
12
1
19
51
Total
15
21
20
6
43
105

Table 3 Frequency of actions and outcomes recorded during match Vietnam class C
Action
Outcome
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available*
Total
Block

16


16
Block and Kick





Blok and Punch





Block and Sweep





Kick
10
8
10

28
Fake Kick



1
1
Punch
7
13
8

28
Fake Punch



2
2
Self-Release

1


1
Topple

7
3

10
Sweep
1

10

11
Catch

6
1

7
Dodge

7


7
Others



42
42
Total
18
58
31
45
153

Table 4 Frequency profile of the 2 contestants in class C
Exponent
Block
Punch
Kick
Topple
Others
Total
Win
7
15
14
3
24
63
Lose
9
15
15
7
44
90
Total
16
30
29
10
68
153

Table 5 Frequency of actions and outcomes recorded during match Vietnam class E
Action
Outcome
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available*
Total
Block

19


19
Block and Kick

1


1
Blok and Punch
1



1
Block and Sweep





Kick
13
14
23

50
Fake Kick



3
3
Punch
6
7
1

14
Fake Punch





Self-Release





Topple
1
9
2

12
Sweep
3
1
2

6
Catch

14
2

16
Dodge

7


7
Others



36
36
Total
24
73
30
39
166

Table 6 Frequency profile of the 2 contestants in class E
Exponent
Block
Punch
Kick
Topple
Others
Total
Win
13
2
15
10
35
75
Lose
8
13
29
2
20
72
Total
21
15
44
12
55
147

Table 7 Frequency of actions and outcomes recorded during match Vietnam class F
Action
Outcome
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available*
Total
Block

20


20
Block and Kick





Blok and Punch





Block and Sweep





Kick
13
6
5

24
Fake Kick



1
1
Punch
3
13


16
Fake Punch





Self-Release





Topple
3
7
2

12
Sweep
7

1

8
Catch

9


9
Dodge

4


4
Others



39
39
Total
26
59
8
40
133

Table 8 Frequency profile of the 2 contestants in class F
Exponent
Block
Punch
Kick
Topple
Others
Total
Win
11
4
2
8
36
61
Lose
9
12
23
4
24
72
Total
20
16
25
12
60
133

Table 9 Mean frequency profile for winner and loser
Exponent
Block
Punch
Kick
Topple
Others
Total
Win 
9.25
9.50
15.00
6.50
29.75
70.00
Lose 
8.25
11.00
14.50
3.50
26.75
64.00
Total
17.50
20.50
29.50
10.00
56.50
134.00

Table 10 Standard deviation of all actions for winner and loser
Exponent
Standard Deviation
Win
57.91
Lose
63.18

Discussion

The data above were all collected by analysing the matches from the 28th SEA Games 2015, men semi-final class B, men final class C, men final class E and men final class F. Based on the results above, the overall dominant action in team Vietnam is punch whereas the less dominant action is topple.

The first match analysed was men class B semi-final between Vietnam’s Duy Phuong Vo and Malaysia’s Muhammad Faizul M Nasir. In this match, it shows that the Vietnam player is more aggressive than his opponent. However, his opponent does not seem to attack much and waits for counter-attack to perform the topple action. We can also see that the Vietnam player is not physically strong enough to counter or release from his opponents topple. He could have caught up with the score and won the match but sadly he got disqualified for punching his opponent in the eye.

In the second match was men class C final between Vietnam’s Nguyen Thai Linh Nguyen and Thailand’s Adilan Chemaeng. He was very confident with his actions and his tactical were very good seeming that his timing was on point to be able to topple down his opponent more. Unfortunately, he also lost the match by getting disqualified by accidentally punching his opponent straight in the face. Despite being disqualified, he could have won the match with his skills and tactics.

The third match was between Vietnam’s Van Hoang Vu and Malaysia’s Mohd Al Jufferi Jamari. Based on the frequency of actions table, the Vietnam pesilat is very active in attacking. He often tries to kick his opponent but hits elsewhere or misses his opponents. Furthermore, it is suspected that his opponent is familiar with the Vietnam pesilat’s tactic of kicking by attacking, therefore he uses the opportunity to have won the match by catching the Vietnam pesilat’s leg and topples him down.

The fourth and last match was between Vietnam’s Dinh Nam Tran and Singapore’s Muhammad Nur Alfian Juma’en. His mistake was also the same as the third match. He attacks by kicking and his opponent grabs his leg and topples him down. Although his actions were more than his opponent in the frequency profile, he had to change his strategy to counter his opponent’s actions.

Based on the mean calculated, team Vietnam’s actions were lower than their opponents. Their actions were easily predicted by their opponents. Although they realise their opponent is leading, they did not change tactic to give them the advantage of scoring. Furthermore, they did not perform much topple in their matches.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the analysis has shown that team Vietnam lost due to the lack of topple. Class B pesilat had the opportunity to catch up and gain points to win before he got disqualified. Class C pesilat could have won the match with his skills and strategy but a simple accident got him disqualified. For class E, he should have changed his strategy for the game to prevent from being toppled down many times. Class F pesilat should have performed less but powerful and useful actions.

For recommendation, team Vietnam should train more to relax in the ring. They should not be hurried to attack. They should learn to counter-attack as well. Moreover, they also should not waste their energy performing unnecessary actions that will not help them gain points. Furthermore, they must train more on toppling down their opponents. Nevertheless, the most important improvement that need to be made is that they must build up their strength, speed, quickness and agility to move faster in the ring. Lastly, they must polish and enhance their skills to prevent mistakes from happening that can get them disqualified.



References

11.     https://www.myactivesg.com/sports/silat/how-to-play/silat-for-beginners/silat-rules-and-regulations
22.     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silat
33.     Shapie, M., Nizam, M., Oliver, J., O'Donoghue, P., & Tong, R. (2013). Activity profile during action time in national silat competition. Journal of Combat Sports & Martial Arts, 4(1).
44.     Shapie, M. N. M. (2011). Influence of Age and Maturation on Fitness Development, Trainability And Competitive Performance In Youth Silat (Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff Metropolitan University).
55.     Anuar AW. Silat olahraga: The art, technique and regulations. 2nd ed. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka; 1993.
66.     Vincent, P., Nizan, M. S. M., & Julinamary, P. (2015). Motives of taking part in Malay Silat, Karate-Do and Taekwondo. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology15(3), 22-26.
77.     Shapie, N. (2010). How to Win A Silat Olahraga Match.
http://ezinearticles.com/?How-to-Win-A-Silat-Olahrga-Match&id=5544229#fref 
88.     Shapie, N. (2010). Martial Art Training - 3 Insider Secrets on How to Kick Fast in Silat
http://ezinearticles.com/?Martial-Art-Training---3-Insider-Secrets-on-How-to-Kick-Fast-in-Silat.&id=5590264
99.     Shapie, N. (2010). Silat Training System - Three Punches To Apply During Self Defense Training
http://ezinearticles.com/?Silat-Training-System---Three-Punches-To-Apply-During-Self-Defense-Training&id=5580394
110.  Shapie, N (2010). 7 Fighting Techniques You Need To Master In Silat
http://ezinearticles.com/?7-Fighting-Techniques-You-Need-To-Master-In-Silat&id=555109

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This article was submitted by Lyana Hanizul, an expert of martial art. Did you find this article useful?
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